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Cataract
A cataract is a change in the clarity, or clouding of the lens. At Shoreline Vision, there are 5 surgeons, Mark Kinziger, M.D., Kenneth Otto, M.D., John Oltean, D.O., Lee Webster, M.D., and Timothy Barron, M.D., which perform the newest and most advanced cataract surgeries

Cellulitis
Cellulitis an inflammation or an infection of the tissues, around the face and eyes. If the cellulitis is limited to the tissues around the eye, it is called preseptal cellulitis and is generally treated with oral antibiotics. The use of hot compresses is beneficial. When the cellulitis extends to the deeper tissues, it is called orbital cellulitis which is much more serious. Orbital cellulitis requires rapid treatment.

Ectropion
Ectropion is a turning outward of the upper and/or lower eyelid margin. As a result of the space between the eyelid and eyeball the tear fluid will have a tendency to spill on the cheek rather than lubricate the eye. An ectropion will generally cause excessive tearing (outside of the eye), dryness of the front surface of the eye and irritation. In mild cases artificial tears, warm compresses and/or topical antibiotic ointment are helpful. Definitive treatment requires surgery to tighten the lid.

Floaters
Small specks or clouds moving in your field of vision as you look at a blank wall or a clear blue sky are known as floaters. Most people have some floaters normally but do not notice them until they become numerous or more prominent. In most cases, floaters are part of the natural aging process. Floaters look like cobwebs, squiggly lines or floating bugs, and appear to be in front of the eye, but are actually floating inside. As we get older, the vitreous (clear gel-like substance that fills the inside of the eye) tends to shrink slightly and detach from the retina, forming clumps within the eye. What you see are the shadows these clumps cast on the retina, the light-sensitive nerve layer lining the back of the eye. Try looking up and then down to move the floaters out of the way. While some floaters may remain, many of them will fade over time.

Anterior Chamber
The anterior chamber is the fluid-filled space inside the eye between the iris and the cornea's innermost surface, the endothelium.

Anterior Synechia
Anterior Synechia are adhesions of the iris and the cornea. There are many possible causes of anterior Synechia including trauma, glaucoma, cataracts, inflammation within the eye, etc. These adhesions may occlude the drainage of the eye. The blockage in this angle increases the risk of glaucoma.

Astigmatism
Astigmatism causes difficulties in seeing fine detail. It is due to an abnormal curvature of the cornea.

Bell's Palsy
Bell's palsy is a sudden, unexplained, paralysis of the facial muscles. This paralysis causes a drooping of one side of the face, i.e., one corner of the mouth sags, the lower eyelid sags on the same side, with resultant loss of the normal blink reflex. The loss of the eyelid blink and exposure of the eye by the drooping lid are potentially dangerous to the eye. The eye requires moisture provided by the tear film. The eyelids spread the tears and provide nutrients to the cornea and eye surface. Without a normal eyelid function and the tear film, the surface of the eye begins to dry out and die. Bell's palsy is most usually "self-limited," resolving without treatment over a period of weeks or months. Until condition resolves, it is important to lubricate the eye. Artificial tears and ointments are important to eliminate the possibility of drying the eye. Sometimes, taping the eyelids closed may be required to protect the eye's vulnerable surface. Sometimes, suturing of the eyelids together (tarsorrhaphy) is necessary to protect the eye. Usually, this is only temporary.

Blepharochalasis
Blepharochalasis, Greek for "eyelid relaxation," is droopy or excess eyelid skin. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of painless swelling of the upper eyelids. The cause may be due to previous abnormal swelling, or heredity. In the case of aging, this may be called dermatochalasis. If the upper eyelid skin droops so that it blocks part of the vision, it is natural for the patient to unconsciously use the forehead muscles to lift the lids. Testing may be performed to determine the field of vision being blocked. This excess skin is often associated with drooping of the eyelid itself known as ptosis. Wrinkled skin folds above and below the eyes can produce an aging, sagging or tired look. If the drooping is not affecting your appearance or your vision, there is no need for treatment. Correction involves surgery called blepharoplasty under local anesthesia.

Blepharoclonus
Blepharoclonus is an increase in reflex blinking or the duration of the blink is longer than usual. This condition may be initiated by irritation or inflammation of the cornea or the conjunctiva. Children may develop episodes of rapid involuntary blinking. Examination generally will not find a cause. In this case, if attention is removed from the child, the blinking typically decreases. When this condition develops in adults, it may also involve muscles of the face. This condition is usually not organic thus treatment is unnecessary.

Blepharospasm
Blepharospasm is a sudden, involuntary intermittent twitching of the muscles that surround the eye. This annoying twitching typically results from stress, anxiety, fatigue, lack of sleep and occasionally excessive use of alcohol or smoking. In some cases, it may result from increased caffeine consumption or from superficial irritation of the eye. Infrequently uncorrected refractive errors, eye-related factors cause of blepharospasm. Occasionally, oral decongestants containing antihistamines may reduce the annoying symptoms of this condition by relaxing the eyelid muscles. Better yet drink Quinine Water (tonic water), it may reduce or relieve the spasm. The muscle spasms are called blepharospasm.

Chalazion
Chalazia are chronic, sterile inflammations of the oil glands of the eyelid. The inflammation is a result of a blockage of the oil gland. Chalazia may become large enough to be associated with some localized pain, redness and tenderness. Treatment includes hot compresses and lid massage. Surgical intervention, to remove the lesion, may become necessary.

Cornea
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of the eye's optical power. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light as and a result helps the eye to focus, accounting for approximately 80% of its production and 20% of the lens focusing power.

Dermatitis
Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. Sudden swelling, redness, with itching is associated with dermatitis. In extreme cases, there can be blisters, oozing, scaling and crusting. The most common type of dermatitis is allergic "contact" dermatitis. Contact dermatitis is due to direct contact with a substance to which you have an allergy or hypersensitivity. Common items which cause contact dermatitis include: soaps, dyes, perfume, or makeup including nail polish. The most important treatment is to eliminate the offending substance. A common misconception is that you will not be allergic to something that you have had constant contact with. The more often that you are in contact with a substance the more likely that you will develop a contact dermatitis. Where the causative agent is unknown, eliminate all possible contact substances, and then add them back one at a time to test your skin's reaction. Cool compresses, steroid ointments, oral antihistamines will help with both comfort and swelling.

Entropion
Entropion is an inward turning of the upper and/or lower eyelid margin toward the eyeball. As a result the front of the eye can become irritated during blinking. This irritation is caused by rubbing of the lashes on the front of the eye. Artificial tears may be helpful with this condition. Topical antibiotic ointments are recommended. Definitive treatment requires surgery.

Episcleritis
The episclera is a thin tissue which is between the white of the eye and the outer layer of the eye known as the conjunctiva. Episcleritis is inflammation of this thin vascular (blood rich) tissue. The condition is characterized by increased redness and tenderness of the eye. On occasion, there is tenderness upon moving the eyes from side to side and/or up and down. This condition is characterized by a unique, localized redness of this tissue. These inflammations occur randomly and without any known cause. Most episodes last about two weeks; however, durations of three weeks to three months occur. Episcleritis is usually self-limiting with no permanent damage to the eye. Bouts of episcleritis are shortened with the prescription of steroid drops.

Hyperopia
Hyperopia is the opposite of myopia which would be farsightedness. Hyperopia is a defect of vision caused by an imperfection in the eye, causing inability to focus on near objects, and in extreme cases, causing a sufferer to be unable to focus on objects at any distance. With hyperopia, the eyeball is too short or the cornea is too flat.

Iris
The iris is the colored part you see in people's eyes (i.e. blue/green/hazel/brown). The main function of the iris is to control the size of the pupil. This is achieved through contraction or expansion of the muscles of the iris.

Iritis
The iris is the colored part of the eye. It is made up of muscle with a thin layer of pigment on the surface. The iris regulates the amount of light coming into the eye by decreasing the pupil size in bright light and increasing the pupil size in darkness. Iritis, or anterior uveitis, is an inflammation of the iris. The cause of the inflammation of iris tissue is generally unknown. In half of the cases, it is secondary to other inflammations in the body. Iritis can also be caused by trauma to the eye or infection of other parts of the eye. Classic symptoms of iritis involve pain in the eye and sensitivity to light. The intensity of pain and light sensitivity can range from a slight discomfort to severe pain with significant sensitivity to light. Iritis needs to be monitored closely which means frequent visits to the office for re-evaluation. Treatment for iritis may require keeping the pupil of the infected eye dilated. Dilation reduces some of the pain. Steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are usually prescribed. Any changes in your condition other than improvement must be reported as soon as possible. Take special care not to stop your medication suddenly or without permission. Strong rebound reactions might occur. Also, we must watch the pressure of your eye so that you do not develop glaucoma.

LASIK
LASIK eye surgery is a refractive surgery that uses the assistance of lasers. The lasers produce small incisions along the edge of cornea to flatten it and change the shape. "LASIK" is an anagram for "Laser-Assisted In-Situ Keratomileusis." There are 4 surgeons John Oltean, D.O., Kenneth Otto, M.D., Timothy Barron, M.D., and Lee Webster, M.D. in Muskegon that perform LASIK. All 4 surgeons are ophthalmologists at Shoreline Vision and perform LASIK at the only Ambulatory Surgery Center dedicated to eyes in Muskegon and the Tri-Cities.

Lens
The lens or crystalline lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to focus on the retina. Its function in similar to a man-made optical lens.

Lens Subluxation
Luxation and subluxation of the lens is dislocation of the lens. The lens of the eye is held in place by a meshwork of microscopic fibers, or zonules. These fibers may be weakened or absent from disease, or damaged by injury. If there is loss of support, the lens may shift in position or become dislocated. This condition may require surgery if the lens becomes too unstable.

LenSx
A Blade-free Laser is the newest technological breakthrough and available for use in cataract surgery. The LenSx femtosecond laser offers a number of advantages compared to standard cataract surgery. For unparalleled precision, the LenSx laser pulses in femtoseconds which are one quadrillionth of a second. * Allows for the correction of low to moderate amounts of astigmatism with the accuracy of a computer-controlled laser. This is an important part of optimizing vision. * Provides greater surgical precision, particularly for some of the most challenging parts of cataract surgery. * Eliminates the need for blades and needles for corneal incisions and the anterior capsulotomy. * Allows your doctor to customize a treatment plan for optimizing your vision to meet your lifestyle and visual goals.

Myopia
Myopia also called near-or short-sightedness, is a refractive defect when images are focused in front of the retina. Nearby images can be seen clearly but distant objects appear to be blurred. With myopia, the eyeball is too long, or the cornea is too steep, so images are focused in the vitreous inside the eye rather than on the retina at the back of the eye.

Optic Nerve
The optic nerve carries images from the retina to the brain.

Posterior Chamber
The posterior chamber is a narrow chink behind the peripheral part of the iris of the human eye, and in front of the suspensory ligament of the lens and the ciliary processes. The posterior chamber consists of small space directly posterior of the iris but anterior to the lens.

Presbyopia
Presbyopia is the eye's diminished ability to focus that occurs with age. A widely held theory arises from the loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens, although changes in the lens's curvature from continual growth and loss of power of the ciliary muscles have also been postulated as its cause.

Ptosis
Ptosis is drooping of the upper eyelid. The lid may droop only slightly or it may cover the pupil entirely. Uncorrected congenital ptosis can cause amblyopia also known as “lazy eye.” If left untreated, amblyopia can lead to permanently poor vision. Except in mild cases, the treatment for childhood ptosis is usually surgery to tighten the levator muscle that lifts the eyelid. Whether they have had surgery or not, children with ptosis should be examined annually by an ophthalmologist for amblyopia, refractive disorders, and associated conditions.

Pupil
The pupil is the 'black circle' that you see in people's eyes. The primary function of the pupil is to control the amount of light entering the eye. When you are in a bright environment, the pupil becomes smaller to allow less light through. When it is dark, the pupil expands to allow more light to reach the back of the eye.

Retina
The retina is a thin layer of neural cells that lines the back of the eyeball of vertebrates and some cephalopods. It is comparable to the film in a camera.

Sclera
The sclera is the white part that we see in people's eyes. The purpose of the sclera is to provide structure, strength and protection to the eye.

Scleritis
The sclera is the white of the eye. Scleritis is an inflammation of this white portion of the eye. This rare condition can be an extremely destructive disease leading to vision loss. Scleritis causes extreme pain and may lead to perforation of the eye. Once the eyeball is perforated, the eye ball may be lost. Scleritis is not usually a primary inflammation or infection but a result of an auto-immune disorder such as Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis or other connective tissue diseases. Scleritis tends to be chronic. It is not uncommon to see the disease wax and wane. If you have scleritis and the condition is increasing, you must return to the office.

Strabismus
Strabismus is characterized by a deviation in alignment of one eye from the other.

Uveitis
This is an inflammation of the middle layer of the eye which may be due to infections, auto-immune disorder and rarely, tumors. The most common uveitis is an anterior uveitits or iritis. Less common are posterior uveitis. Patients with uveitis may complain of eye redness, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, spots or flashes of light. In half the causes, the reasons cannot be determined. To help determine the cause of the inflammation, your medical doctor should see you to perform a comprehensive physical examination as well as obtain blood work. Often times X-Rays are required. Treatment for uveitis requires steroids to suppress the inflammation. Often, dilating drops are used to quiet the inflammation and make the eye more comfortable. The length of treatment varies from patient to patient. The uveitis can return after the drops have been discontinued, thus, you should report any change in vision, redness or pain. If a uveitis is present for a long time, the inflammation can cause other problems such as glaucoma and cataracts. It is therefore important that the uveitis be controlled.

Viritis
Viritis is an inflammation of the jelly in the posterior portion of the eye. This jelly which keeps the eye from collapsing may be inflamed from infection, auto-immune disorders and rarely, tumors. Patients with viritis may notice redness of the eye, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, or spots. A Physical exam as well as obtaining blood work is needed to determine the cause of the Viritis. Treatment for viritis requires steroids to control the inflammation and sometimes dilating drops to either make the eye more comfortable or to prevent other complications. The dosage and length of time of treatment varies from patient to patient. Viritis can return after the medication has been stopped, thus, one should look for re-occurrence and report it immediately. If the Viritis is present for an extended period of time, glaucoma and/or cataracts may occur.

Vitreous Hemorrhage
Vitreous hemorrhage is a condition of intraocular (inside the eye) bleeding. Patients may experience sudden vision loss and floaters or “spots” in their vision. The condition is due to bleeding from the retinal vessels or underlying choroid. The most common causes of vitreous hemorrhage are proliferate diabetic retinopathy, a retinal tear or detachment, posterior vitreous separation or central or branch retinal vein occlusions.

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